Institute of Health and
Biomedical Innovation
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Adhesive (adjective): a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together.

Adjacent (adjective): nearby.
Aetiology (noun): the cause or causes of a disease or abnormal condition.
Air fluidised bed (noun): a bed with body support that is designed for use by patients with, or at risk for, posterior pressure injuries or with posterior burns, grafts, or donor areas. The pressure against the patient's skin surface is less than the capillary refilling. The improved capillary blood flow to the skin speeds the growth of granulation tissue.
Allied Health Professionals (noun): clinical and administrative health care professionals distinct from medicine, dentistry and nursing.
Ambulation (noun): to move from place to place.
Amputation (noun): a surgical removal of all or part of a limb.
Anaemia (noun): a condition characterised by abnormally low levels of healthy red blood cells or haemoglobin (the component of red blood cells that delivers oxygen to tissues throughout the body).
Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (noun): the ratio of ankle blood pressure to brachial (arm) blood pressure.
Ankle flare (noun): a crown of dilated venules about the medial ankle.
Anoxia (noun): absence of oxygen supplied to an organ or tissue.
Anticoagulants (noun): medications that make the blood less likely to clot.
Antimicrobial (adjective): the act of destroying or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and especially pathogenic microorganisms.
Arterial disease (noun): damage to or dysfunction of the arteries outside the heart resulting in reduced blood flow.
Atherosclerosis (noun): hardening or blockages in the arteries.
Atrophie blanche (noun): absence of pigmentation.
Autonomic neuropathy (noun): involves damage to the nerves that run through a part of the peripheral nervous system.
Avascular (adjective): without blood or lymphatic vessels.
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Barrier cream (noun): a cream used to protect the skin.
Blanching hyperaemia (noun): whitening of the skin in response to light finger tip pressure being applied to an area of reactive hyperaemia, indicating that the microcirculation is intact (AWMA).
Bony prominence (noun): an elevation or projection on a bony anatomical structure.
‘Bottom out’ (verb): to hit the bottom, for example, when a support mattress does not provide enough support to avoid the person sinking and hitting the surface below the mattress.
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Callous (adjective): being hardened and thickened.
Capillary refill time (noun): the rate at which blood refills empty capillaries.
Cardiac (adjective): relating to the heart.
Case control studies (noun): one type of epidemiological study design. They are used to identify factors that may contribute to a medical condition by comparing a group of patients who have that condition with a group of patients who do not.
Cellulitis (noun): inflammation of cellular tissue.
Cerebrovascular accident (noun): a sudden loss of consciousness, sensation and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of a blood vessel of the brain. Commonly called a stroke.
Chronic obstructive airways disease (noun): is a disease of the smaller airways in the lung. Also know as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Chronic venous insufficiency (noun): a condition characterized by poor flow of venous blood, especially in the leg veins.
Circulation (noun): the movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body.
Coccyx (noun): tailbone.
Congenital (adjective): existing at or dating from birth.
Congestive cardiac failure (noun): a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to supply the body's tissues with sufficient oxygen and nutrients. This results in a build-up of fluid (congestion) in the tissues.
Consciousness (noun): waking life in which one's normal mental powers are present.
Contracture (noun): a permanent shortening (as of muscle, tendon, or scar tissue) producing deformity or distortion.
Cyanosed (adjective): blue.
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Debridement (noun): removal of lacerated, devitalised or contaminated tissue.
Deformity (noun): a bodily malformation, distortion or disfigurement.
Degeneration (noun): deterioration of a tissue or an organ in which its structure is impaired.
Dehydration (noun): an abnormal depletion of body fluids.
Dependent (adjective): unable to act normally without the assistance or direction of another.
Dermis (noun): the lower or inner layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin.
Deteriorates (verb): to become impaired in quality, functioning or condition.
Diagnosis (noun): the art or act of identifying a disease from its signs and symptoms.
Discolouration (noun): a change in the natural colour of something.
Doppler (noun): a Doppler is a hand held instrument that is used to assess, using ultrasonic waves, the movement of blood through the blood vessels.
Dorsalis pedis pulse (noun): pulse located on the top of the foot.
Dynamic support surface (noun): is a support surface characterized by continuous change, activity or progress.
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Ecchymosis (noun): the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels marked by a livid black-and-blue or purple spot or area (bruise).
Eczema (noun): see Stasis dermatitis.
Emollient (noun): an agent that softens or soothes the skin.
Epidermis (noun): the upper or outer layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin.
Epithelialisation (noun): the process of becoming covered with or converted to epithelium.
Erythema (noun): non-specific redness of the skin which may be localised or general in nature. It may be associated with cellulitis, infection, prolonged pressure or reactive hyperaemia (AWMA).
Eschar (noun): dry, avascular, necrotic tissue, typically black or brown in colour and of tough/leathery consistency.
Evidence based (adjective): the use of the best current evidence in making decisions about the care of the individual patient.
Evolution (noun): any process of formation, growth or development.
Excoriate (verb), Excoriation (noun): to wear off, abrade or chafe the skin.
Exudate (noun): fluid that escapes from the tissues into a wound and oozes from the wound. Exudate is comprised of serum, fibrin, cellular debris and white blood cells.
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Fascia (noun): a flat band of tissue below the skin that covers the underlying tissues and separates different layers of tissue.
Fever (noun): a rise of body temperature above the normal 37 degrees Celsius.
Foreign debris (noun): fragments of devitalized tissue or foreign matter.
Fracture (noun): the act or process of breaking or the state of being broken.
Fragility (noun): the quality or state of being easily broken or destroyed.
Friction (noun): a force created by two contact surfaces moving across one another (AWMA).
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Gaiter area (noun): the area of the lower leg where a gaiter is worn - from the ankle to the top of the calf. (A gaiter being a garment worn over a shoe or lower pant leg made of cloth, elastic material or leather). It is in this area that classic venous leg ulcers occur.
Gangrene (noun): local death of soft tissues due to loss of blood supply, anoxia and putrefaction. Also called wet gangrene.
Granulating (verb): minute loops of newly formed capillaries form on a raw surface (as of a wound).
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Haematoma (noun): a swelling containing a mass of blood that forms in a tissue, organ or body space as a result of rupture of a blood vessel, often due to blunt trauma.
Haemoserous (adjective): blood stained exudate.
Haemosiderin staining (noun): brown staining of the skin that occurs when haemosiderin (dead red blood cells) are deposited in tissue.
Haemostasis (noun): stopping the flow of blood.
High specification foam mattress (noun): a special foam mattress that is conformable and aims to redistribute pressure over a larger contact area.
Hyperaemia (noun): excess of blood in a tissue, congestion or engorgement of blood, associated with red or maroon colour of skin.
Hyperglycaemia (noun): prolonged high blood sugar levels.
Hyperkeratosis (noun): dry, flaky skin.
Hyperpigmentation (noun): excess pigmentation in a bodily part or tissue.
Hypertension (noun): high blood pressure.
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Impaired (adjective): functioning poorly or inadequately.
Inadequate (adjective): not capable or competent.
Induration (noun): abnormal firmness of tissue with a definite margin, an increase in fibrous elements in tissue and loss of elasticity and pliability which is commonly associated with inflammation.
Infection (noun): invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms.
Inflammation (noun): a local response to cellular injury that is marked by redness, heat, pain, swelling and often loss of function and that serves as a mechanism initiating the elimination of noxious agents and of damaged tissue.
Intermittent claudication (noun): cramping pain and weakness in the legs and especially the calves on walking that disappears after rest and is usually associated with inadequate blood supply to the muscles.
Ischaemia (noun): deficiency of blood supply caused by functional constriction or obstruction to blood vessels and arterial flow.
Ischium (noun): bone of the pelvis, part of which (the ischial tuberosity) forms the main support when sitting i.e. the bone felt underneath the buttocks.
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Joint capsule (noun): a ligamentous sac that surrounds the articular cavity of a freely movable joint, is attached to the bones, completely encloses the joint, and is composed of an outer fibrous membrane and an inner synovial membrane.
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Lateral (adjective): located at or on the side.
Lipodermatosclerosis (noun): characteristic skin changes that occur as the result of chronic venous insufficiency. It presents as a combination of induration, fibrosis, haemosiderin staining and inflammation.
Longitudinal studies (noun): correlational research studies that involve repeated observations of the same items over long periods of time, often many decades.
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Maceration (noun): softening of the tissue by prolonged exposure to liquid or moisture. Macerated tissue often has a white appearance and feels boggy to the touch.
Malnutrition (noun): poor nutrition because of an insufficient or poorly balanced diet or faulty digestion or utilisation of foods.
Manual handling (noun): the use of the human body to lift, lower, fill, empty, or carry loads.
Maturation (noun): the final stages of differentiation of cells, tissues, or organs.
Medial (adjective): located at or towards the middle.
Meta-analysis (noun): combines the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses.
Cell migration (noun): the movement of cells.
Motor neuropathy (noun): a progressive muscle disorder characterised by asymmetrical muscle weakness.
Multidisciplinary (adjective): making use of several disciplines at once (e.g. nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, medicine, dietetics, social work).
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Necrosis (noun): death of cells or tissues through injury or disease.
Necrotic (adjective): dead.
Neurological disease (noun): a disease concerned especially with the structure and functions of the nervous system.
Neuropathy (noun): loss of protective sensation.
Non-blanching hyperaemia (noun): persistent redness of the skin when light finger tip pressure is applied to an area of reactive hyperaemia, indicating a disruption to the microcirculation. In lightly pigmented individuals this would be classified as a stage one pressure injuries (AWMA).
Non-randomised studies (noun): Clinical trials in which the participants are not assigned by chance to different treatment groups. Participants may choose which group they want to be in, or they may be assigned to the groups by the researchers.
Nylon monofilament (noun): is similar to a bristle on a hairbrush, attached to a wand and is used to touch the foot. It is used to assess protective sensation or feeling in the foot.
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Oedema (noun): the presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, usually applied to visible accumulation of excessive fluid in the subcutaneous tissues.
Optimal (noun): most desirable or satisfactory.
Orthotics (noun): support and bracing of weak or ineffective joints or muscles.
Osteomyelitis (noun): infection in the bone.
Oxygenation (verb): to impregnate, combine, or supply with oxygen.
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Pallor (noun): deficiency of colour.
Palpate (verb): to examine by touch.
Passive (adjective): tending not to take an active or dominant part.
Perfusion (noun): blood supply.
Peripheral vascular disease (noun): a disease that affects the blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities.
Periwound (noun): the area around a wound.
pH (noun): a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions, increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing acidity.
Physiological (adjective): consistent with the normal functioning of an organism.
Plantar (adjective): relating to the sole of the foot.
Plaques (noun): fatty deposits.
Pooling (verb): the accumulation of blood in a body part or organ.
Pressure redistribution device (noun): a device that aims to reduce, relieve or redistribute tissue interface pressure in the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries.
Pressure relieving device (noun): a device that aims to reduce the pressure in the tissues to less than 32mmHg, the capillary closing pressure. These devices function by using an inflating/deflating support system.
Pressure relieving surfaces (noun): these may include specialised beds, mattresses, mattress overlays and cushions and are used to cushion vulnerable parts of the body and distribute the surface pressure more evenly.
Prevalence (noun): the proportion of individuals in a population with a disease or condition at a given time. Prevalence is the most frequently used measure of disease frequency (e.g., prevalence surveys are used to ascertain how many persons within a facility have a pressure injury at a particular point in time).
Probed (verb): delved into or investigated.
Prognostic studies (noun): are studies that examine selected predictive variables or risk factors and assess their influence on the outcome of a disease.
Proliferation (noun): the growth or production of cells by multiplication of parts.
Prospective cohort study (noun): a study that follows a group of similar individuals ("cohort"), over time, who differ with respect to certain factors under study, in order to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.
Purulent (adjective): containing, consisting of, or being pus.
Putrefaction (noun): decomposition of organic matter.
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Randomised controlled trial (noun): a clinical trial in which the participants are randomly distributed into groups which are either subjected to the experimental procedure or which serve as controls.
Reactive hyperaemia (noun): an abnormal compensatory mechanism with a transient increase in blood flow that occurs following a period of reduced blood flow from localised pressure. Relief of this pressure results in a sudden increase in blood flow to the affected tissue (AWMA).
Realigned (verb): to change or put back to a new or former place or position.
Recurrence (noun): return of symptoms of a disease after a remission or healing.
Rest pain (noun): pain occurring usually in the legs during rest in the sitting or lying position. The pain occurs in the absence of activity and is frequently related to advanced peripheral vascular disease.
Revascularisation (noun): a surgical procedure to restore blood supply to a body part or organ.
Rigorous (adjective): strict.
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Sacrum (noun): base of the spine.
Sensation (noun): awareness due to stimulation of a sense organ.
Serous (noun): a clear, watery fluid secreted by cells of a serous membrane.
Shear (noun): a parallel load forcing the skeleton to slide forward against resistance between the skin and its contact surface. The epidermis and dermis remain relatively anchored to the contact surface while the deep fascia moves with the skeleton. The blood vessels between the dermis and the deeper tissue layers may be distorted resulting in thrombosis and capillary occlusion (AWMA).
Slough (noun): thick yellow tissue.
Spasm (noun): an involuntary and abnormal contraction of muscle or muscle fibres.
Stasis dermatitis (or eczema) (noun): an inflammatory condition of the skin characterised by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions which become scaly, crusted, or hardened. Chronic venous hypertension can cause stasis dermatitis, most often in the gaiter region of the lower leg.
Subcutaneous tissue (adjective): tissue found just under the skin.
Systematic review (noun): a literature review and meta-analysis or narrative summary focused on a single question which tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesise all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.
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Taut (adjective): tight.
Telangiectasia (noun): small blood vessels near the surface of the skin that have become enlarged, which are most often located on the legs, below the knee and around the ankles. Commonly called spider veins.
Tendon (noun): the tissue by which a muscle attaches to bone.
Time series study (noun): a sequence of data points, measured typically at successive times, spaced at time intervals.
Topical negative pressure therapy (noun): the application of negative pressure across a wound to aid wound healing. Also known as VAC therapy.
Traumatic (adjective): of or relating to a physical injury or wound to the body.
Tubular retention bandage (noun): a bandage used to hold dressings in place.
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Undermining (verb): weakening or wearing away. In the case of a wound, a space extending between the skin and wound bed where the tissue has been destroyed.
Undernourished (adjective): not given essential nutrient elements for proper development.
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Valvular incompetence (noun): the valves of the venous system do not close completely and when pressure is exerted on them blood leaks back through causing inefficient forward movement of the blood.
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Wound bed (noun): the base of the wound.
Wound margin (noun): the outside border of the wound.
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